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 Main Influences on Old English

 

Scandinavian Place-names and Family Names

 

               Over 2,000 Scandinavian place-names are found throughout the former Danelaw area, chiefly in Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, and the East Midlands

 

               The distribution of Scandinavian family names such as those that end in -son (Johnson, Henderson, Jackson...) also shows a concentration throughout the Danelaw

 

              In Yorkshire and north Lincolnshire, 60 percent of the names recorded in early Middle English sources are of Scandinavian origin

 

               Over 600 place-names end in -by, the Old Norse word for 'farmstead' or 'town', as in Rugby and Grimsby (Grim's farm)

 

               Many end in -thorpe 'village, outlying farm' (Althorp, Millthorpe)

 

               Some end in -thwaite 'clearing' (Braithwaite, Applethwaite)

 

               Others end in -toft 'homestead' (Lowestoft, and Sandtoft) 

               A Scandinavian name does not always reflect an original Danish or Norwegian settlement.  A local Danish aristocracy sometimes imposed a Scandinavian name on an Anglo-Saxon community 

 

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MAIN INFLUENCES ON OLD ENGLISH

  Multiple Influences on Old English

  Latin Influence

  Latin Words from Continental Period

  Latin Words from c. 650 - c. 1000

  Scandinavian Influence

  Scandinavian Place- and Family Names

 

  Celtic Influence

 

OLD ENGLISH

  The Origins of Old English

  Main Influences on Old English

  The Lord's Prayer in Old English

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